Safety & Training

Cloud Jumping Procedures


Cloud Regulations

APF Operational Regulation Part 6 - Safety, responsibilities and Supervision states:

6.4 Weather Limitations 

6.4.1 Cloud and Visibility
Except where Descents are made in accordance with the authorised written approval of the APF, all descents must be made in meteorological conditions that:
(a) permit the target to be clearly visible throughout the descent; and
(b) do not require the parachutist to enter cloud.

However, rules have been ratified by CASA and are placed here so members can familiarise themselves with APF directions and start to plan their own manual that will be needed to comply with The Standard.

If a DZ wants to be able to conduct cloud jumping operations, they must submit a Cloud Jumping Procedures Manual to the APF.

If approved, an Authorisation & Specification document for approval under APF RS 60 will be issued by the APF. (maximum 3 years)

Cloud Jumping Procedures Manual

Text is available from the Downloads section below in a "generic" manual template (i.e. The Standard) plus appendices, to assist in preparing a club DZ specific manual.

Once a submission is COMPLETE, send it as an electronic editable version to the APF Office c/o the APF Technical Officer (i.e. the APF CJPM Authorisation Appointed Person). The assessment & authorisation procedures of the application are detailed in APF Regulatory Schedule 60.

Downloads & Templates

GETTING STARTED. Download and study ALL the following publications to start your preparation, then BEFORE you start, contact an APF Technical Officer, for further clarification and any queries. APF Contact Page

PLUS - the following appendices

PLUS - Check List:


A service fee of $500 will be charged for first time submissions to contribute to the cost of processing applications, which has proven to be a very time consuming and complex exercise.

At the expiry of an APF Authorisation, a new submission will need to be made. There will be a $250 fee for each new application.

NOTE: An organisation will be invoiced for the Service fee at the completion of the review/approval process (i.e Please do not make any payment upon submitting a manual for review).

Note re Hazard Risk Model

The Hazard Model's results are looked at very closely. It is absolutely necessary that you be able to justify the figures that are inputted to the Collision Hazard Risk Model.

That is, you must provide somewhere in the body of your CJPM or as part of the Hazard Model appendix, explanation as to how the data was gathered.

It has been accepted previously for example, the counting of all aircraft flying over the DZ in a fortnight and multiplying by 26. The DZ area is defined usually as a minimum of a 1NM radius. This specified area may be found in the club's LoA with Airservices.

There would be other ways to gather this data. Most submissions gather their data from Airservices.


Prescribed Training

Tandem Instructor Information

Recommended Tandem Water Landing Procedure

Download Video

If a water landing seems imminent, remain calm, inform your passenger and follow these steps; ( listed in order of priority )

  • Fit and inflate passenger’s life vest.  Ask your passenger to fully inflate the life vest by pulling the tab firmly downwards.
    If the life vest does not inflate , ask the passenger to fully inflate the life vest manually with the mouth tube.
  • Brief your passenger for water landing.

    This should include;

    • Legs up in front , feet together.
    • Holding the lifejacket with both hands and pulling downwards to prevent the jacket popping off their head upon entry into the water.

    • A countdown to landing including taking a deep breath and holding it just before entering the water.


  • Disconnect side adjusters and stow hooks to prevent entanglement with lines etc. once in the water
  • Disconnect RSL
  • Undo Tandem Masters chest strap. Leave passengers harness as is.
  • Ensure helmet visor is open
  • Face into wind for landing
  • Aim to land as close as safely possible to boats
  • Land well away from breaking waves
  • Remind passenger to lift legs , hold vest and countdown to entry , hold breath.
  • Flare as for a normal landing , aiming to enter the water vertically and with minimal forward speed.
  • Once in the water;
  • Cutaway main canopy , if under reserve collapse reserve by hauling in one brake line
  • If covered by the canopy , remain calm , stay connected and follow the seams on the canopy for the quickest route to freedom. Ask the passenger to assist.
  • Disconnect the passenger once clear of the equipment.
  • Fit and inflate your life vest.
  • Remain with your passenger and if possible stay close to the equipment as a floating canopy is a great signal for rescuers.
  • Conserveenergy and stay warm until help arrives.

Download PDF

Tandem Master Emergency Procedures Checklist (SIGMA)

# Emergency Procedure
1 Normal opening sequence
2 Unable to deploy drogue

Deploy reserve immediately.

3 Drogue bridle entangled with gear or tandem pair.

Inflated Drogue?

Not inflated drogue?

Try to clear, if unsuccessful, pull reserve handle above 3,000ft.


4 Drogue not inflated/ collapsed

Pull drogue release handle after 6-8 seconds.

5 Left or right arm incapacitated through interference by passenger or injury, drogue out

Attempt to free arm, release drogue at altitude, can use secondary drogue release

6 Cannot find or pull either drogue release handle

Pull reserve handle.

7 Container opens during freefall, drogue not deployed yet.

Deploy drogue immediately.

8 Only left drogue release handle (primary) pulled, no deployment appears to be happening

Pull secondary drogue release.

9 Both drogue release handles pulled, no deployment appears to be happening

Use elbows on side of container to try to dislodge main bag. If no response, inflated drogue in tow – pull reserve handle.


10 Main deploys, drogue entangled with main or lines

Decide if malfunction is safe to land before hard deck– if not, pull cutaway handle and then reserve handle.

11 Full line stretch, but main remains in deployment bag (bag lock)

Locate both emergency handles, cutaway, ensure full release of both risers, pull reserve handle.

12 Line over

Assess, cutaway and deploy reserve no lower than hard deck.

13 Step through on main

Assess, cutaway and deploy reserve no lower than hard deck.

14 Main malfunctions, and passenger is incapacitating TM’s right arm.

Release arm, cutaway and deploy reserve.



Main malfunctions, and passenger is incapacitating TM’s left arm.

With an RSL?

Without an RSL?

Release arm, cutaway and deploy reserve.


16 Engine failure at 8000ft

Prepare for exit, listen for instructions from the pilot.

17 Engine failure at 4000ft

Prepare for exit, listen for instructions from the pilot.

18 Engine failure at 1500ft

Prepare for landing, listen for instructions from the pilot.

19 Catastrophic structural failure at 7000ft.

Exit, deploy main.

20 Catastrophic structural failure at 2000ft.

Exit, deploy reserve

21 Engine failure at 5000ft over the ocean.

Exit, deploy main, prepare for water landing.

22 Passenger refuses to jump before door opens.

Don’t jump.

23 Passenger refuses to jump, hanging half way outside the aircraft.

Assess, if more difficult to climb back in, exit as normal.

24 Side spin.

Implement side spin recovery procedures; if successful, deploy drogue. If unsuccessful and drogue side up, deploy drogue, if drogue side down, deploy reserve.

25 Cameraman entangled with drogue/ drogue bridle.

Release RSL, cutaway, pull drogue release, track and gain vertical separation, deploy reserve.

26 Drogue bridle breaks or detaches as drogue release is pulled (no drogue, container is open, main still in container).

Use elbows on side of container to try to dislodge main bag. If no response, release RSL, cutaway, ensure full release of main risers, pull reserve handle.


27 Drogue bridle breaks at disk during drogue fall. (no drogue, container is closed).

Deploy reserve.


Two canopies out.

Bi-plane or side by side?


Second bag out, canopy not yet deployed?


Download PDF

Cutaway! The APF's Malfunction Training Video

Cutaway! Australia's skydiving malfunctions training video is designed to be used as an educational supplement to the required first jump course. Featuring demonstrations by Australian skydiving champion, Michael Vaughan, it shows the different types of malfunctions that can occur and how to deal with them effectively using emergency procedures.

Cutaway! Ch 1: Good Canopy
Cutaway! Ch 2: Routine Opening Problems
Cutaway! Ch 3: Decision Making Process
Cutaway! Ch 4a: Emergency Procedures DOS
Cutaway! Ch 4b: Emergency Procedures SOS
Cutaway! Ch 5: Low Speed Malfunctions
Cutaway! Ch 6: High Speed Malfunctions
Cutaway! Ch 7: Two Out
Cutaway! Ch 8: The Journey Begins


  • Produced, Directed and Edited by Andrew Forsyth
  • Written by Don Cross, Ralf Jaeger and Gary Myors
  • Aerial Performances by Michael Vaughan
  • Director of Aerial Photography Shane Sparkes
  • Safety Skydiver and Hand Model Rob Douthat
  • Director of Photography Craig Hardiman
  • Sound Design by Andrew Forsyth & Post OP Group
  • Graphics by Andy Eisenberg & Andrew Forsyth

The APF wishes to thank the following for their generous support:
Glenn Singleman, Don Cross, Mike Carre, Michael Vaughan, Jules McConnel, Paul "Poo" Smith, Jai Campion, Jo Chitty, Nigel Brennan, Simon "Sas" DiSiascio.

Executive Producer Don Cross. Chief Instructor Skydive Nagambie.

Produced by Pemberton Productions Pty. Ltd. 2013

Proudly presented by the Australian Parachute Federation

YouTube Playlist

Student Training Table Manoeuvres

Back Loop

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C182 Exit across the line of flight

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C182 Exit poised

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Fluffy Recovery

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Practice Pull

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Turns - Heading Maintenance

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Turns 360

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APF Canopy Piloting

Brake Turns

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Collapse slider and loosen chest strap

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common landing problems

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Deep braked approach

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Dynamic Approach

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Flare Turn

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Flight cycle

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Full Glide Approach

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Half braked approach

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Harness Turn

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Hook turn recovery

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Off DZ Landing

Download Video


Download Video

Priorities under canopy

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Rear riser stall and recovery

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Rear Riser Trimming

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Rear Riser Turns

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Simulated toggle fire and EPs

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Spotting and hop n pop exit and subterminal opening

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Toggle stall and recovery

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Toggle Turns

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Two stage flare

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Freefly Fundamentals

The APF in collaboration with Australian Freefly team Focus and BURN film company have produced a series of training videos for the fundamental concepts of freeflying.

How to Back Fly
How to Transition to Sit Fly
How to Sit Fly


YouTube Playlist



New South Wales

Name Location
Bokay, Kobi Wollongong, NSW
Brody, Mark Taree, NSW
Godwin, John Clunes, NSW
Hemmila, Cindi Sandy Point, NSW
Hill, Lawrence Mullaway, NSW
Jaeger, Ralf Worrigee, NSW
Knowles, Andy Appin, NSW
Maurer, Tony Wauchope, NSW
McConnel, Jules Moruya, NSW
McMillan, Rob North Wollongong, NSW
McWilliam, Jon Picton, NSW
Onis, Phil Sandy Point, NSW
Riddle, Terry  Mogo, NSW 
Smith, Paul Moruya, NSW
Tuddenham, Bill Kurri Kurri, NSW 

Northern Territory

Name Location
McKay, Sam Yulara, NT 
Smith, Ashley  Sanderson, NT 


Name Location
Cicciarelli, Dave Cairns, NQLD
Cofield, Lloyd Rockhampton, NQLD
Cooper, Cameron Caloundra, SQLD
Davies, Adam Mooroobool, NQLD
Doyle, Darren  Noosa, SQLD 
Jamieson, Archie Coolangatta, SQLD
Lewis, Steve Wongaling Beach, NQLD
McCooey, Richard Springwood, SQLD
McGregor, Jason Mackay, NQLD
Moss, Alan  Townsville, NQLD
Motzo, Max Cairns, NQLD
Nordkamp, Ben Toogoolawah, SQLD
Oliver, Luke  Mooloolah, SQLD
Osborne, Paul El Arish, NQLD
Stein, Joe Byron Bay, SQLD
 Van Niekerk, Brandon Mission Beach, NQLD

South Australia

Name Location
Gazley, Mark Glenelg, SA
Gray, Al Greenwith, SA
Rootman, Charl Hove, SA
Smith, Greg Murray Bridge, SA


Name Location
Cross, Don Nagambie, VIC
De Waard, Justin  Balwyn North, VIC 
Fletcher, Tom Nagambie, VIC 
Hamilton-Presgrave, Ralph Maldon, VIC
Lindberg, Chippe Mornington, VIC
Murphy, Paul  Burwood, VIC
Smedley, Steve Doreen, VIC
Tibbitts, Mike St Kilda, VIC
Trimble, Craig Camberwell

Western Australia

Name Location
Lee, Graham (Dixie) Palmyra, WA 
Lonnon, Pete  Jurien Bay, WA 
Stutt, Glenn  Geographe. WA
Woodland, Don  Ferndale, WA